Kenya’s cities and towns are centres of industry, education, and culture, hosting 34 percent of the national population and generating over 65 percent of the national GDP. With an annual urban population growth rate of 4.4 percent, it is one of the most rapidly urbanizing countries in the region. Due to a combination of demographic, economic, and political realities, many Kenyan cities are facing daunting challenges. Perhaps the most important one is rapid urbanization, outstripping by far the capacity of the government and local authorities to guide the physical growth of urban areas and provide essential urban services for their citizens. This has resulted in the rapid growth of slums in Kenyan cities and towns.