The-Economics-of-Urban-Form-1This review compiles literature on the economic costs of urban form, as defined by density, centricity and city size. It shows support for the general conclusion that high-density monocentric forms and high-density polycentric forms offer the best balance of low transportation and infrastructure costs, low environmental impact, and high income-generation abilities.

However, it is worth noting that polycentric cities are not as well understood as monocentric cities, and they may be an efficient way of mitigating the costs of density while still reaping the benefits.