Egyptian cities have grown fast in the past 30 years. This has led to the continuous formation of informal settlements on the periphery of cities. In the process, cities and villages have grown at a fast pace surpassing, in some cases, 80 % of its original footprint in 1985. This rapid urbanization has led to the loss of significant areas of prime agricultural land. The migration of the workforce seeking job opportunities has fueled the expansion of cities. Primitive informal industries have flourished in poor migrant areas and a lack of basic urban services has led to environmental degradation.