This paper examines the situation in Afghan cities for:
(i) women and girls
(ii) returnees and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs)
(iv) ethnic minorities
Common to all is their heightened socio-economic marginalisation and vulnerability, exclusion from urban decision-making, and weaker urban safety and security.
The paper highlights that framing their priorities and participation as 'cross-cutting' is not enough. Dedicated actions and resources are required if we are to genuinely achieve inclusive cities in Afghanistan.