Pg7 Municipal GovernanceThis discussion paper examines the situation, challenges and opportunities facing Afghanistan's cities in terms of municipal governance. It shows that the 33 Provincial Municipalities1 are a key sub-national governance element that are, more than ever, vital to achieve the Government's vision of a self-reliant Afghanistan. As Afghanistan rapidly urbanises, their importance will only continue to increase. The coming five years are therefore essential to lay solid governance foundations for managing Afghanistan's urbanisation patterns and systems.